Good day, dear colleagues! My name is Aleksandr Kapitonov. And I’m from St. Petersburg, Russia – ITMO University and my topic is related with the industry 4.0 and blockchain used inside. It’s mainly a technical topic, in my sense. Because I will present some cases where we use the blockchain for solution of a real life case. OK, let’s go. Right now we are facing with the problem that the main part of the service provider who provides the protocol of the communication between the different systems, between the parts of the automated control system for factories for any equipment additional to what is placed in the factory inside. Provided by
a centralized provider where you should sell the transaction inside and someone serves it, makes the calculation and gives you an answer or addressing your transaction to another one. And we started thinking how to solve that problem when the old transaction collected into one point because in that case you have the single point of failure. It’s not a good case and you should provide the maximum security for that point and sometimes it has very high cost. And we started to learn the materials of research of our colleagues. First one it was Victor Glushkov. He is one of the pioneers of the economical cybernetics. And he proposed to create the global automated system for controlling the economy inside the country and it was in the middle of the last century.
And the second one is Roland Coase and his idea about new institutional economy and his work “The Nature of the Firm”. Because in that work he explained that the market can find the point for the company where that company will be useful for the market and it will have some optimal position. And the size of that company will be bordered by market and market controls the size of the companies, which should be on the market. And the thought that sometimes autonomous systems or cyber-physical systems – it is connection of the different elements, actuators, sensors and control system and communication protocol inside. It looks like a usual company, but it’s fully autonomous. That’s why we decide to apply that ideas to the real cases with the autonomous system and cyber-physical systems. And what have we got. We have organized the communication between different cyber-physical systems for the Ethereum blockchain with the smart contracts usage. Whereas smart contracts it’s like a description of the business process inside the blockchain. And the cyber physical systems, and autonomous systems… It’s like separate autonomous agents which communicate to each other with the coins and use the market relations to exchange the information and try to find the optimal position in the market. What technologies we use for that cases? First it’s mix OS it’s one of the implementation of the open-source operation system. And you can tune this system for the separate autonomous agent like cyber-physical system with description of all elements. What it should have for example: what sensors, what controllers, what actuators should be and what drivers should be used for that cyber-physical system. The next one it’s a robot operating system. It’s one of the frameworks to control the cyber physical system inside with the mathematical implementation of the control laws and drivers of the driver realization for the actuators and sensors. And the last one it’s Ethereum blockchain with the smart contracts what we used for organizing the communication between separate system when it presented like separate autonomous agents, which can provide the open service or open product. Because right now, you know, there are several cases with the lights out factories. For example, in China. And right now lights out factory can be like a separate cyber physical system, which can communicate with other lights-out factories through the Ethereum blockchain with our software. Okay. Few words about the network ecosystem: how we organize the communication and what we put in the site outside of the blockchain and what information we settle in the blockchain? Of course, the settling information inside blockchain costs money. And if you want to publish your asking bids, it’s not suitable to put all asking bids in the blockchain. That’s why for asking bids we’re using the light channel – light communication channel . It’s IPFS. Publisher subscriber or we hope of
releasing Whisper in the Ethereum blockchain, and I think we will shift to Whisper. But right now it’s publisher subscriber in the IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) application. Okay. The cyber physical system in that case publisIishing the bids: I can provide your service, I can provide your product. And in these bids description of the service of product with the cost, parameters, the time and other information about addresses. That’s all. And users asked the same information in the same way. I want to get that service for that price. Do you agree with me or not? And when we find the asking bids which equal, we match them and settle in the blockchain. After that the blockchain creates the smart contract with the liabilities of each side and the user’s money is kept in that smart contract address. After that the cyber physical system starts to complete the task to provide the service or product. And after completing the task the cyber physical system is publishing the log file of the work. In the robot operating system, there is technology for collecting data. It’s named ROS bag file. And ROS bag file keeps the structure of the system and keeps the information about the system. That’s it. After that step we start the checking of that file: that was the real work or not? And in this step we are asking the observing network. It can be additional cyber physical autonomous agent or, I don’t know, network of the cameras, network of the sensors. Independent sensors, of course, not the ones inside the cyber physical system, but the ones making the work. And if the observing network has given the approvement of the work: it is OK – we finalize the liability contract, smart contract and send the money to cyber physical system. And that’s all. Okay. This is the first case of what we are working on. It is a ducky town project where the autonomous cars in the small city are driving throughout. And here we realize how to make the autonomous taxi service with the blockchain and liability contracts. As you can see, the car gets the ask to get to this special point in the town and starts moving through the pass from the start point to the last point mentioned by the user. And in each step cars record the state of the system. And after finishing the work it is publishing the results. In the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS). And in this case, we realize the observer network with the prism algorithm. It’s a probability model checker to get which matches the features inside the file and try to compare it with the initial model. And in that case that’s OK. The work is done. This is the main
scheme for that case. You know, autonomous agents, smart contract and customers at the client’s end and the validator is a prism algorithm probabilistic model checker. Okay, in the next case… It’s a case with the UAV for measuring the state of the environment. The client is asking: I want to get the parameters of the air pollution in that point, in that geographical point. And autonomous vehicle, autonomous flying vehicle starts to make the work and goes into that point. And, as you can see, in the log file, it keeps the parameters of the environment: like CO2 pollution and all the dust and other parameters. This is the second case of how we organize the autonomous service with our technologies. Okay, these are the structures here. And the last one – it’s industry 4.0 case: where we demonstrate how the work at autonomous markets and autonomous factories is done. How they are playing on that markets. And, as you can see, there are four markets and the investors put the money on each market as they want. And the robots start to work, providing the product on each market, depending on the size of the money on each market. That’s the main idea. Okay. Thank you for your attention! Ready to answer your questions. Thank you! How do we organize? It’s something like a ranking system. It should be. You know, if the validator is cheating, nobody wants to use that validation. That’s the main idea. But mainly the validators are autonomous cyber physical systems and, you know, the robots don’t lie. One of the points. Thank you! Okay. Thanks for your attention! If you have any questions, you can come to me and ask them. Thank you!